Current best practices and rationalistic perspectives in causation-based prevention, early detection and multidisciplinary treatment of breast and gastric cancer

Gastric & Breast Cancer e-journal
DOI: 10.2122/gbc.2012.0235


Intratumor heterogeneity and personalized medicine Resistance to everolimus treatment of renal cancer and new therapeutics.

Prof. Theodore Liakakos, MD, PhD

Affiliation: Theodore Liakakos, MD, Professor of Surgery, 3rd Department of Surgery, University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Rimini 1, Chaidari, Athens 12462, Greece.


Applying whole-exome sequencing (WES) not in a single biopsy but in multiple separate biopsies of the same renal cancer, a recent study published in NEJM revealed substantial diversity [1]. This finding may have important diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic implication not only for renal cancer treatment but for most cancer types. Perspectives and challenges to reach personalized medicine in routine clinical oncological practice through deeper understanding of genetic and genomic heterogeneity and its impact on gene expression and cellular signaling networks are discussed.

(Citation: Gastric & Breast Cancer 2012; 11(3): 118-120)

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Online ISSN : 1109 - 7647
Print ISSN : 1109 - 7655

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last update: 5 July 2012