Treatment guidelines modern oncology has improved oncological outcomes of cancer patients, but intrinsic and acquired drug resistance and relapse rates remain disappointingly high [1,2]. Future estimates suggest increase on incidence, late diagnosis and mortality rates if current conventional research and clinical practice will be continued . Recent whole genome and transcriptome next generation sequencing of bulk samples as well as single cell genomics and transcriptomics have unraveled extensive intratumor heterogeneity and discovery of multiple drug targets. Tumor region-to-region and cell-to-cell heterogeneity-guided drug sensitivity as well as complex cancer-immune cell interactions shape the new era of precision oncology [4-6]. In this focus article clinical predictive biomarkers to guide tailored multi-drug therapy is discussed. [7-9].
Moreover, combination drug therapy including molecularly targeted drugs and immunotherapeutic agents such as Pembrolizumab, Nivolumab, ipilimumab and atezolizumab as well as nine approved immune checkpoint inhibitors for tailored treatment on the basis of tumor mutational burden, PLD1, MMR/MSI guide precision immune-oncology in the clinical setting .
(Citation: Gastric & Breast Cancer 2021; 16(1): 64-71)